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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Those concerns are casting a heavy shadow over a two-day meeting of G20 central bank governors and finance ministers due to start tomorrow. The International Monetary Fund this week already warned that it was poised to downgrade its forecast for global growth this year, saying the leading economies needed to do more to boost growth.

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雅虎首席执行官玛丽莎梅耶尔
时间:2010-05-17 编辑:francie
But the declines continued, and now it’s all over, red rover.

LBS’s programmes consistently rank highly for the extent to which alumni reach their targets. “I managed to achieve not only the goals I set for myself but to exceed them with the job I secured,” says one 2010 MBA graduate who responded to the FT survey.
The tension between Paramore's high-intensity hooks and withering lyrics explodes into fluorescent colors on After Laughter.
4. 西班牙企业学院

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

钢贸商“寒冬”谋生:转型升级越冬

攻读EMBA也有利于升职。一位毕业生表示:“我获得的技能对我的升职至关重要。”五分之一的学员在毕业3年后担任首席执行官、执行董事或董事。学员们在读EMBA前的平均薪资为11.4万美元,毕业5年后增长52%至17.5万美元。
12. Most Hopeful Sign At one point, you could feel the status quo shift as it became O.K. to talk about discrimination in the industry not just openly but also loudly. Viola Davis spoke out, as did Jennifer Lawrence, who went public about making less than her male co-stars. “I didn’t want to seem ‘difficult’ or ‘spoiled,’” she wrote in the newsletter Lenny, speaking for many, including those with far more modest paychecks.
英国《金融时报》EMBA排行榜为有工作经验的高级管理人员排列出全球范围内最好的100个EMBA项目。此排行榜基于对各商学院及其2012年毕业的学员的调查得出。这些数据衡量了校友们自毕业以来在职业方面取得的成就,包括薪资、级别及个人成绩方面。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Economic forecasters are counting on 2014 to be a breakout year. But whether the economy finally moves past its sluggish growth will rest on several forces playing out differently than they have since the recovery began. Some of the key questions:
《无为大师》
Be Professional

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 据德国工商总会的统计数据显示,中国于2016年超越美国,首次成为德国的最大贸易市场。
  • 房市乍暖还寒 四季度成交或将与去年持平
  • The shortage of supply-chain talent explains why 48% of U.S. companies plan to snap up logistics grads in 2011, according to a new survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers.
  • 一次都不用跑 杭州个人住房信息可网上查询
  • 房地产泡沫升温 建材行业积极迎战
  • Lufax, which started four years ago has emerged as the leader due to innovative credit rating techniques.
    The new numbers, reported by a tracking initiative called the Global Carbon Project and published in the journal Nature Geoscience, came on the eve of a United Nations summit meeting meant to harness fresh political ambition in tackling climate change. Scientists said the figures showed that vastly greater efforts would be needed to get long-term global warming within tolerable limits.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 中央政治局召开会议听取长春长生疫苗问题调查报告, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

上半年国内瓷砖出口总量稳中趋降 出口产品呈多元化

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

解读钢材市场:10月份中国钢材价格大跌可能性不大

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 布雷克·格里芬的高中样子和现在相差不大。只要在高中版的格里芬上加一些头发,再增大他的肌肉,就变成了如今的格里芬。
    有了这个支架,吊床随处都能搭。可以搭在水上、雪上、公路上。
  • Pete Rossi can count on one hand the number of weeks out of the year that he works more than 50 hours. But the rest of the year, his job as an actuary with the Department of Defense, provides a good living with a minimum of stress.
    国会将批准追加数十亿美元的刺激资金,但不会冠以“刺激”之名,也不会真正创造什么就业机会。国会将联合两党成立一个削减赤字的委员会,但同样发挥不了什么作用。既然美国国债还有投资者买,国会为什么要改弦更张?
    WOLF HALL (PBS, April 5) In the season’s most promising piece of casting, Damian Lewis (“Homeland”) will play Henry VIII and the two-time Tony Award winner Mark Rylance will play Thomas Cromwell in this “Masterpiece” adaptation of the popular Hilary Mantel historical novels.
    专家警告说,在普通词汇中添加数字或符号根本没用。斯莱恩说:“黑客们都知道你的小伎俩,对容易破解的密码稍作调整不会更安全。”
    经济学家原本还预计,今年1至10月份全国固定资产投资(不含农户)增长速度会与1至9月份的增长速度8.2%持平。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 今年一季度广西引进粤港澳大湾区资金836.3亿元
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 前8月上市龙头房企销量大增 竞拍一线城市土地

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

"The guy must have weighted the pros and cons of the situation: he had a great chance to survive a stranded elevator, but would have been doomed if he left homework undone," joked @Zealshifang.
That an iPhone mini and a LTE license from the Chinese government this year or next could finally persuade China Mobile (CHL), with 700 million subscribers, to cut a deal with Apple.
即便这些改进最终会降低长期成本,遵守这条法律可能还是颇具挑战性。此外,2015年是各楼盘停用6号取暖油、改用污染更少的4号油的最后期限。
[k?n'tr?ul]
报告还发现,在当地政府的努力下,北京、深圳、广州、上海等一线城市的交通拥堵状况没有恶化。
有些人则特地请人代劳:
受原油输送问题影响,纽约商品交易所交易的美国基准西得克萨斯中质油价格已持续走低。虽然这些问题近来有所缓解,但美银美林(Bank of America Merrill Lynch)基本大宗商品研究部门主管舍尔斯(Sabine Schels)怀疑这些问题不会消失。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Intel
  • 成品家具市场被瓜分 装修前置是突围之道
  • 8. Employment futures weak as pensions drain states, municipalities
    然而,北方高等商学院毕业生的国际化流动程度最高,2014届毕业生有85%曾在国外工作。
  • 为员工买房操碎心的公司:或无息贷款 或半价出售
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的
    《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey),PBS,周日播出。第五季一开始,格兰瑟姆伯爵的自尊就遭到了新打击,还有一个非婚生的婴儿藏匿在乡间小屋的情节,有些维多利亚时代的气息。对于那些还没有通过不法方式看到英国播出的剧集的人,以及那些没看过剧情梗概的人,我们只说第一集中有非常激烈的场面。
  • Goldie Blox is a toy company on a mission to redefine the “pink aisle” in toy stores. Men dramatically outnumber women in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education and careers, with girls largely losing interest in these topics by age 8. Goldie Blox toys are designed to inspire future engineers by engaging girls in a way that draws on their strong verbal and storytelling skills — while still offering opportunities to build the skills that can later translate into an interest in engineering. And speaking of opportunity, how does a start-up toy company stand out against the big names that have been dominating the toy space since the beginning of time? In a savvy move, Goldie Blox recently released a video that went viral with their take on the Beastie Boys song “Girls.” Though the video was ultimately taken down, Goldie Blox did an excellent job raising awareness of the need to get more women and girls interested in STEM … and of the Goldie Blox toys.
    在考辛斯被交易后,接近一半国王队名单上的球员都应被清洗,然而并没有。很好。带上Buddy Mania,球馆里还有很多空座位可以挑选。
  • Personal per capita disposable income increased by 6.3 percent in real terms.
    狄娜莎(Tinashe)与德文戴·西尼斯(Devonté Hynes),《打赌》(Bet), RCA
  • 3. 凯特?阿普顿
    Democracy is at bottom a civilised form of civil war.
    Fudan University and Peking University, two prestigious comprehensive universities in China, were ranked fourth and sixth on the salary ranking, while the remaining of the top 20 were dominated by finance/economics and science/technology schools.
  • n. 污染,污染物
    其中排名最高的是上海复旦大学管理学院(Fudan University School of Management),排在第40位,较此前在2014年的排名下滑8个名次。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The “红五月”爽约 楼市去化压力增加 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

大环境驱使 广东家具企业接连倒闭绝非偶然

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

楼市投资抛一线买二线靠谱吗?专家:需更谨慎

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

北京进口家具线上线下皆降价促销 市场仍遇冷

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

东莞购房者不还首付贷 开发商起诉被判败诉

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • According to Oliver Cooke, a financial-services recruiter at Selby Jennings in New York, banks have been stressing what they call “internal mobility”, or redeploying staff from one department to another. If a bank facing sluggish conditions in debt trading, for example, can convert a trader to a risk analyst or a compliance officer, it can keep people interested — and it can save a bundle on severance.
  • n. 贷款,借出,债权人
  • 新华社:脱贫攻坚战三年行动指导意见发布

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 据《重庆晨报》报道,经调查后,荣昌警方于4月29日以危害公共安全的罪名逮捕了周某。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 但是Jalava并没有拒绝医生的建议(出于伤情的实际情况考虑,拒绝很困难),而是将这个建议作为自己的期待。他决定试一试,并且真的在植入的手指里放入两千兆字节的数字存储器。他现在只需将指甲剥掉,露出USB插头,即可将手指插入电脑连接。他也可以在任何时候拿掉整个手指,并且借给朋友使用。
    我国发展到现在这个阶段,不靠改革创新没有出路。我们拥有世界上数量最多、素质较高的劳动力,有最大规模的科技和专业技能人才队伍,蕴藏着巨大的创新潜能。
    冷空气是被一个名为高空急流的气流循环带到美国本土的内部,这让北极的冷空气南下。但是,一个抵消这种冷空气的怪现象,让异常温暖的热带空气停留在西部地区、阿拉斯加大部分地区以及北极大部分地区的上空。
  • East New York in Brooklyn will be the test case when the Department of City Planning presents initial recommendations early next year. After that, the rezoning process could begin for the neighborhood, among the city’s poorest. A proposal for west Flushing in Queens is next.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 下面这条消息,可以给人带来一线希望:市价房的租金太高了,它们明年可能涨不了多少。“好消息是,租金不会再涨了,”米勒说,“坏消息是,它们很可能也不会下降。”
  • “夹缝”中的中国家居建材行业
  • Amy Kazmin

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 出租房曝甲醛超标 自如:全力解决问题
  • Household substance abuse
  • 专家解读:2017年智能家居将有这些变化
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

人民日报:仅靠户籍等政策不足以支撑人才聚集

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 山西:长治整治“小产权房” 将严肃问责
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 飞利浦连翻低价轰炸 中小LED照明企业该去何处找利润?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

普华永道的校园和学校雇佣主管安德鲁?巴杰里(Andrew Bargery)表示,Teach First的毕业生出类拔萃:“他们已经在专业环境下工作过,拥有专业成熟度,并擅长交际。”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

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北京2016年受理外籍人士及其家属永久居留申请较2015年增长426%。
目前已经被泄露的照片多达10个G。据《北京日报》12月1日报道,著名在线P2P借贷平台"借贷宝"也和此次事件有关。
6年来第一次,新的挑战者领衔英国《金融时报》高管MBA(EMBA)课程排行榜。
卡恩称,Summly的机器学习和自然语言处理能力背后的设想和技术“均很出色”。
[p?n'demik]
据张晓光表示,怀旧部分将包括出自上海文华电影制作工作室的电影,该公司成立于1946年、引领了中国文艺电影的新时代,将会让观众“一睹中国的电影文化和历史”。
Chinese tourism to South Korea has boomed in recent years, delighting retailers but irking domestic tourists who have found the country’s attractions swamped with visitors.
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你是不是觉得你游刃有余,悄悄找工作的能力简直就是职场届的詹姆斯邦德。只需利用手腕上的内置摄像头戒指便可造出一份伪造的牙医预约,并摆好电脑屏幕偷偷修改你的简历。当你沾沾自喜喝着搅匀的马蒂,或是冰咖啡时,候殊不知你的遮羞布已经被掀掉啦。你的老板当然得找你“喝茶”。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

家具建材“跨界整合”对家具企业的影响如何?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • ?援助工人担心在海地的粮食危机,上周那里飓风桑迪造成了52人死亡。联合国也担心洪灾可能导致霍乱病例急剧上升。在加勒比海桑迪造成至少69人遇难。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 此外,有关通知还强调对作弊的零容忍。
  • “以房养老”陷入困局 全国仅有117户选择住房反向抵押养老保险
  • 到现在第22部007系列片已经登场,邦女郎角色变迁,不过有一点我们可以肯定,无论007电影怎么拍,邦女郎总会漂亮性感、聪明高贵而且越来越有内涵。这是007电影过去、现在乃
  • 3月楼市销量回升 大中城市房价走出”过冷”区间
  • 但是这并没有阻止科学家在实验室发展人造大脑。今年奥地利的科学家仅从干细胞开始,成功地创造出等同于9个周大的婴儿的大脑。目前,这些大脑只有豌豆大小,也不能思考。阻止这些试验品发育成具有完全功能的大脑的因素是它们没有血液供给。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 强二线城市楼市走向理性 半年“收官”呈“三低”态势
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Morocco is home to nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, mainly ancient towns and old city ruins, making it a decent choice for history lovers.
  • 谷歌发布了今年用户搜索最多的热门榜单。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

今年全国新地王已经超过100个 到底谁在制造?

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