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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

It's impossible to list every woman who's ever existed, this list obviously be restricted to women who've achieved a fair level of celebrity. These are the hottest women celebrities of 2015.

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Golden State Warriors point guard Stephen Curry said he has visited China every year since 2013 and the fans there are incredibly supportive.
你可能觉得夏威夷航空的运营相对容易,因为该公司的航班很少遇到美国大陆那种恶劣的天气条件。夏威夷航空公司在航班准点率排行榜上常年位居前列,在9月份最新公布的榜单上创下最高准点率。夏威夷航空公司最近宣布将把业务拓展到夏威夷岛外,开通从檀香山到北京的直达航班。
survey

['t?nl]
Will impeachment proceedings begin against Donald Trump
在排行榜19年历史上,这是首次出现由两所院校包揽这两项排名头两名的情况。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2015年一季度家具行业利润分析

律师本质上是谨慎的,但他们中的大多数人已经认识到,技术是处理他们需要梳理的大量信息的关键。没有技术,披露和合规等一些需要处理很多文件的工作几乎不可能完成。
It seems safe to predict lots more noise and very little progress for the rest of 2017. And that will continue to be a damaging combination for business and the UK economy.
包括中国移动、阿里巴巴和腾讯的16家中国企业进入了该榜单的前100名。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

发展文化事业和文化产业。
The annual rich list of China's movers and shakers gives a temperature check on where money is flowing in China, and underlines the growing financial muscle of the country's super-rich.
12. 最有希望的迹象。有段时间,你会觉得现状已经改善了,人们可以公开大声谈及业内的歧视现象。维奥拉·戴维斯(Viola Davis)出来说话,詹妮弗·劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)公开谈起,自己比片中的合作男星片酬少。“我不想被视为‘难搞’或者‘被宠坏了’,”她在简报《伦尼》(Lenny)中为许多人发言,其中包括许多薪酬更低的人们。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Passion, perseverance and a positive attitude tend to set successful entrepreneurs apart. Cultivating these attributes requires an innate skill set and some tips to get started.
  • 地板行业铺装及售后成发展瓶颈
  • 中国房价在今年初曾以9.6%的同比增速快速上涨,但此后随着经济放缓以及很多中等规模城市遭遇房产供应过剩,房价一直在下跌。
  • 长春警方立案调查长生生物
  • 开发商频放大幅优惠促销信号 是时候入市了吗?
  • Released in 2013, The Bling Ring is a satirical crime drama that chronicles the adventures of Hollywood Hills high schoolers who burgle the homes of local celebrities. The teens break into homes of icons like Megan Fox and Paris Hilton, stealing cash, clothes, handbags, and jewelry to help them emulate the excessive lifestyles they admire in magazines. The students are eventually caught and sent to jail after posting pictures of their hauls on social media.
    执掌M&G旗下亚洲地产基金(一种开放式投资工具)的厄尔?斯普拉特(Erle Spratt)说,直接投资房产存在风险,因为这样的资产很难物色和定价。“这是一个像我们这样的投资者很难买到房产的市场,因为开发商持有大量房产,他们通常不卖,”他说。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 超500名台胞意向在南京本地购房 25人已获购房证明, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

7月份65城房价环比上涨 专家预计调控收紧将加速

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

建材行业危机暗涌

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 10. 把单词画出来!
    As for his own education: He's weighing whether to enroll in university in England or maybe the U.S. to be closer to Silicon Valley. Or perhaps he'll skip college entirely and just focus on his work. 'I absolutely want to start another company,' he says. 'Serial entrepreneurs get addicted to creation. I want to be passionate. I feel really bad when I'm not doing something new.'
  • Mr Baweja agrees with this conclusion, noting that both South Korea and India, another net commodity importer, are exporters of refined oil products, the dollar value of which should rise this year.
    2、天津爆炸
    根据中国海关总署(General Administration of Customs)的数据,在经历了此前一个月的同比下跌1.4%之后,11月份中国的进口同比增长6.7%,至1522亿美元,远高于同比收缩1.9%的预测中值。
    每平方英尺单价:667美元(每平方米约合人民币4.6万元)
    同时,调查数据还显示,榜单上前100名的学校,毕业生平均月薪较去年上涨了1818元,涨幅达到22.8%。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 陶瓷行业现代仿古风暴来了 仿古砖盛行
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 房租"涨停板"问世 未来还需长效机制方可根治

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

“在三个月里,我在我的三个女儿身上总共花费了5000英镑。有一件裙子花了我两百美元,她只穿过两次,就长高了、不合身了。——不过我不打算节制开支。”
今年11月,我国网约车司机将须通过考试获得从业资格证。
A Beautiful China where the sky is blue, the land is green, and the water runs clear
In 2012, Google introduced Google Glass, a computer you can wear on your face. Someone wearing the glasses can be walking down the street or doing any everyday task while simultaneously seeing an overlay of calendar appointments, messages, and subway alerts. They can make video calls and even upload live videos to the Internet while on the move, without ever needing to use their hands. Google Glass might be cool, it might be new, it might be revolutionary, but it's definitely not the first pair of wearable computer glasses.
China is the most striking wild card that will drive agricultural markets, said Stefan Vogel, head of agri commodity markets at Rabobank,
今年银幕上的发型和化妆各式各样,大胆新颖,从《魔法黑森林》(Into the Woods)中女巫卷曲、蓬乱的蓝色调鬃毛,到《激乐人心》(Get On Up)中詹姆斯·布朗(James Brown)微微发亮、精心塑造的大背头。有时,秃头也能发挥作用,比如《法老与众神》(Exodus: Gods and Kings)中拉美西斯的秃头、重眼影造型。
In addition, the top-ranking cities typically performed poorly in costs and culture and lifestyle. China's "cities of opportunity" continue to face challenges when it comes to building cities that satisfy the needs of the populace and provide a high quality of life.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 木门企业经营成本压力大 外企争相“夺食”
  • We learned that we could see a source of ripples in space-time.
    Tuesday’s event at Apple’s new Cupertino headquarters is expected to reveal its much-anticipated 10th-anniversary iPhone, offering significant upgrades to the smartphone’s display, camera and overall design.
  • 上半年一线城市房价爆发式上涨 开发商趁势抬价
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 7.《大白鲨》
    Recently, a recruitment website issued the Investigation Report of Employability of 2016 Graduates. The report notes that starting salaries for 2016 graduates are 4765 Yuan, nearly 30% graduates to enter the Internet industry which provide the highest average salary.
  • 在开放课程排行榜顶端,赛德商学院(Sa?d Business School)排名上升幅度最大,跃升5位至第4名。这是这所位于牛津大学(University of Oxford)的商学院首次进入前五。赛德商学院在所有10项受学员评分影响的指标上的排名都有所提升。
    Staffing
  • il不+legal合法的→不合法的
    We will do more to energize the non-public sector.
  • 冲击奖项:最佳电影奖和最佳导演奖,让人意外的是,诺兰从未获得过奥斯卡奖提名。
    中共中央纪律检查委员会表示,中国正准备与其他国家签署更多双边或多边协议,并将加强信息交流和联合调查,尤其是与美国、加拿大和澳大利亚等西方国家在一些重大或独立个案上的合作。
    根据公安部的声明,自2015年9月以来,我国在放宽外国人居留、入境政策方面取得了巨大进步,帮助吸引了更多海外人才、促进了国际交流和经济发展。
  • “我们对中国在应对腐败问题上所做出的努力和取得的成功经验非常感兴趣。南非也面临腐败问题,耗费了我们很大精力。”南非政府最近提出了应对腐败的新举措。此举令人关注,因为这正出现在南非公共职能和行政事务部部长(琳迪韦·西苏鲁)访华之后。中国国家预防腐败局局长(马馼)参加了会见。这也体现出南非与中国领导人互访的益处。”Dr Bheki Langa, South African ambassador
    There are legitimate reasons to doubt that Nerlens Noel can blossom into a dependable starting center, including his injury history, off-court red flags, and extremely limited offensive game.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 行业竞争激烈,“去品牌化”现象严重 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

海鑫钢铁复受阻 政府力避“第二个联盛”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

政策效果显现 楼市加速回暖推动经济稳定

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

电子社保卡要来了!人社部:今年实现至少1亿人领取

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

九天四城限制企业购房 政策打“补丁”围堵楼市漏洞

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • n. 典礼,仪式,礼节,礼仪
  • 昨日发布的新数据是对2015年全球贸易图景的第一张快照。但在这些数据发布之际,有越来越多的人担心2016年对全球经济而言将比此前预期的更为危机四伏。
  • 2013年建材行业进出口形势展望

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 你要去里约看奥运会吗?你会在安卓或者iOS上装谷歌地图这个应用软件吗?我想你已经有了答案了。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • When contraband goods made from prohibited wildlife are seized in the United States, they find their way to the National Wildlife Property Repository near Denver. Pictures taken by Tristan Spinski from inside the facility — shoes made of leopard skin, a lamp made with zebra hooves, a sea turtle’s skull, an elephant foot stool — “testify to the human appetite for other species,” Rachel Nuwer wrote for The Times in July.
    Amid rising pollution and a strengthening yuan, the capital city saw its tourist numbers drop to 4.20 million visits from January to November from 5.01 million visits in 2012, according to China Daily, citing a report from China Tourism Academy and Beijing Commission of Tourism Development. An earlier report based on a survey of domestic travel agents showed that visitors to the capital declined by roughly 50% in the first three-quarters of the year compared with a year earlier.
    然而,英国退欧运动和特朗普崛起中的煽动因素存在相似之处。
  • 进口价值的增长是在强势美元推高进口商成本的情况下实现的。11月份以人民币计算的进口增长幅度则为同比增长13%,反映了人民币的相对弱势。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • “有个人请妻子跟自己老板打电话说他不会再来上班了。”
  • 中法高层力挺新型建材
  • This frame lets you hang your hammock anywhere. You can use it on the water. Snow. On the road.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 九鼎宏泰贾志荣:与大型装饰企业合作少走弯路
  • Household substance abuse
  • 浙民投与佳兆业“生化”危机再起
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

国内最先进涂料项目落户青岛 总投资约2.6亿

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 京津冀区域领跌全国 2017年50城住宅成交同比降幅近两成
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 楼盘标价不规范被罚1000元
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

That's part of the logic, anyway, behind the unlikely candidacy of Ethan Sonneborn, a 13-year-old running for governor of Vermont, one of just two states with no minimum age requirement for the office.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

也许经济增长率是否能达到3%的国内最大威胁是利率的突然调整,但是从各方面的预测来看鸽派的美联储在2015年不太可能会采用挑衅的利率策略。
It is also reported that Chinese citizens made 1.26 billion cinema visits in 2015, a roughly 51 percent increase from a year earlier.
《被撕破的芭蕾舞鞋和突变的生活》(Torn Ballet Shoes, and a Life Upended)
Three stricts and three honests: Be strict in morals, power and disciplining oneself; be honest in decisions, business and behavior
[.?d?'lesnt]
['k?l?nd?]
用户说,语音信息的传输速度很快,可以在微信平台上对话。但和微软(Microsoft Corp.)的Skype等免费语音应用不同的是,在微信上还可以另选时间回复别人发来的语音信息。北京微信用户Robin Wang说,我可以决定什么时候回复,以及回不回复。
While still on stage, Beatty blamed the epic mishap on being given the wrong envelope, saying he had seen the name Emma Stone from 'La La Land' when he opened his envelope.
[d?'mestik]
考虑到波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)管理合伙人理查德莱塞(Richard Lesser)的第二任期将于10月结束,该公司可能也将引来变化。然而,由于该公司拒绝就其选举流程及领导人最多可以有几个任期置评,莱塞的未来尚不明确。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

“红五月”成色不足 端午楼市平淡收官

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Tesla has an order backlog of $226 million. At the production run rate of 1000 cars a week expected at the end of 2014, that translates to a 30-week backlog.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 美国航天局(Nasa)表示,2015年气温以0.13摄氏度之差,打破了2014年创下的记录。
  • 1至5月北京商品房销售面积同比下降50.7%
  • Song “Friends Forever” (Yang Kun and Zhang Liangying)
  • 广州市消委会:仅两成广州市民倾向在养老机构养老
  • With U.S. e-commerce activity approaching 10% of all retail sales, more merchants are shopping around for easy-to-use platforms that get them selling online quickly.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 营销渠道有万千 软装配饰市场释放能量
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 不像那些狂热追星的小女孩,玛蒂认为她一直都能保持着冷静的头脑,即使在格莱美颁奖典礼这种场合。因为她将自己视为一个明星,所以她需要表现得体。
  • adj. 优雅的,精美的,俊美的

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2015石材行业九大发展趋势 迎接理性消费时代

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