Part 2: Health apps, wearables, and sensors: The advancing frontier of digital health

The quality of its students makes LBS particularly valued. “Studying among so many talented people has instilled in me the belief that I can actually achieve something on my own,” comments one MBA graduate from the class of 2011.
不包括阿拉斯加和夏威夷在内的美国本土曾在2012年创下温度记录,那年发生过灼人的热浪和干旱。主要是由于东部地区不同寻常地寒冷,才使得2014年的温度对这48个州来说,仅在有记录以来的最暖年度中排名第34。
The pace of innovation has been rapid. Fitbit has released five or six distinct models since the company launched in 2008, and Samsung released three or four variants of the Galaxy Gear in a nine-month period. Sony SNE 0.77% , Pebble, Google, and Facebook’s FB 0.25% Oculus Rift are positioned to follow.
单词adolescent 联想记忆:
2013 Rank: 1
As E.E. Cummings rightly said, "To be nobody but yourself in a world which is doing its best, night and day, to make you everybody else means to fight the hardest battle which any human being can fight; and never stop fighting."
在1991年至2010年之间,癌症死亡率显著下降了20%,这比过去十年下降总和的10%还要多。总有一天,我们会跟癌症说再见。
每平方英尺单价:310美元(每平方米约合人民币2.1万元)
2017年,人们指责大型科技公司太过强大、利用自身的规模主宰市场,而且不够关注他们所创造的工具如何被用来做恶。
单词scroll 联想记忆:
虽然唐尼主演的几部电影将在明年上映,但规模成本要比他的超级英雄电影小得多。直到2015年《复仇者联盟:奥创纪元》(Avengers: Age of Ultron)上映,他才能迎来下一个丰收季。
adj. 浓缩的;扼要的 vt. 浓缩(condense
7. Your company's human resources staff saw your résumé on a job board。
整个夏天,每隔一周,Good Humor冰淇淋卡车在周五午餐时就会拜访这家公司。而在秋季,公司每个月有两个上午会给大家提供苹果酒和甜甜圈。
6. Will we witness another global epidemic in 2010?
Rossi, 31, spends his days calculating the future costs of the Pentagon's pension, health and education benefits, but says his job involves more than just crunching numbers for spreadsheets. He communicates with other government agencies and brainstorms with colleagues about financial models.
In October last year North Korean border guards attempted to shoot down some balloons, triggering a brief exchange of heavy machine-gun fire between the two sides.
[ik'si:d]
8.鲜花往往不属于赏花人,而属于牛粪。
No. Wall Street strategists’ predicting that the US government’s 10-year borrowing costs will climb above the 3 per cent mark in the coming year is as much a staple of the Christmas period as awkward office parties. This year the forecasts look more likely to be fulfilled, given a withdrawal of quantitative easing and the US tax cut. However, the seismic, secular forces pinning down both inflation and long-term bond yields remain in place and are still underestimated. The Federal Reserve will raise interest rates at least three times in 2018, but the 10-year yield will not breach 3 per cent.
在电影《007:大破天幕杀机》中饰演邦女郎的贝纳尼丝·玛尔洛(Berenice Marlohe),已经确认加盟导演特伦斯·马立克(TerrenceMalick)执导的最新电影作品,目前此影片正在奥斯汀进行拍摄。
“One guy hired a marching band to accompany his announcement.”
Cullinan and Ruiz each carry a suitcase containing a copy of the winning envelope for all the categories - meaning there are two envelopes for each award.
*Guest Actress in a Drama Series: Margo Martindale, “The Americans”
The promotion of urbanization in central and western China has also attracted many members of the labor force from coastal cities in East China to inland regions, where the cost of living is much lower, Peng explained.


在北约1999年对南斯拉夫的空袭中,大西洋联盟对塞尔维亚和科索沃境内数以百计的目标进行了打击。绝大多数目标都没有争议:防空阵地、军队指挥部和其他军事目标。然而对一个特殊目标的摧毁却在世界另一端掀起了声势浩大的反西方特别是反美浪潮。那个目标就是驻贝尔格莱德的中国大使馆。
We will endeavor to transform and upgrade traditional industries.
不会。结束罗伯特穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)长达37年的执政(军方在这件事上也帮了点忙)后,埃默森姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)承诺在2018年举行自由选举。这引出了一个问题:他可能会输掉大选。他至少要装作选举是公平的,因为他需要政治献金来扭转经济。这将意味着要推行选举改革——可能会让其不受欢迎的非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线(Zanu-PF)输掉选举。即使姆南加古瓦准备好在选举中赌一把,还不清楚军方愿不愿意。已经把自己的人推上台的津巴布韦将军们,不太可能会容许公众再把他踢下去。


With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of mobile phones, wearable devices such as smart watches, and sensors that can measure and gather a variety of data, public interest is growing in using consumer electronics to take ownership of personal health and wellness. A 2015 survey found that 66% of Americans age 66 and older want to use mobile technologies to improve their health by receiving medication reminders and tracking diet and nutrition, physical activity, and symptoms.[1

(G.I. Joe: Retaliation)以及两部小规模电影,加起来在全球的票房收入总计13亿美元。
1940年5月,德国进军法国,将40万英法联军围困在敦刻尔克的海滩上。在英国和法国军队的地空掩护下,盟军利用所有能用上的军用和民用船只,有条不紊地进行了撤退。这个英勇行动的最后,有33万名来自法国、英国、比利时和荷兰士兵得以安全撤退。
INDOORS: The two-story stucco contemporary was built in 2005. The interior is an airy open space; white walls contrast with red tile floors. Walls of sliding glass doors face live oaks and marshland on the Wilmington River.
《警察故事》(Babylon),Sundance,周四播出。詹姆斯·内斯比特(Jame Nesbitt)最近在《失踪》(The Missing)中出演了一个孩子失踪多年、备受折磨的父亲,他在这部剧中饰演的是完全不同的角色:一个斤斤计较的老派警官,雇用一个美国公关专家(布里特·马灵[Brit Marling]饰),来改善苏格兰场的形象。这部讽刺剧集由《贫民窟的百万富翁》(Slumdog Millionaire)的导演丹尼·博伊尔(Danny Boyle)执导,有点像阿尔曼多·伊安努奇(Armando Iannucci)的政治喜剧片《灵通人士》(In the Loop)。

Health apps and wearables
Health apps and wearables can unobtrusively gauge physiological and emotional states and collect, quantify, and monitor data regarding a user’s day-to-day behaviors. This “quantified self” can increase users’ self-awareness regarding their behavior and encourage positive changes to their overall health and well-being.[2] These commercially available devices also integrate an array of features to provide motivation through reward systems, opportunities for social in-teraction, tools for self-improvement, and prompts. The novelty, affordability, practicality, and ease of use have resulted in increased consumer enthusiasm and the pervasiveness of these devices.[3,4] With this growing interest in personal health, members of the general public are becoming more involved in monitoring and improving their own health habits.[5-10

Undoubtedly, merely tracking data through a device is not enough to maintain good health-related behaviors long-term, and the software must also incorporate motivational constructs important for the adoption and habituation of behaviors. For instance, a systematic review of studies that considered the use of electronic activity monitor systems found short-term changes in physical activity with self-monitoring, but no demonstration of superiority when the systems were compared with other interventions.[11] Another review of studies on the viability of using mobile technology for measuring and influencing physical activity found that most apps allow users to document their activity, set goals, review real-time feedback, connect to a social support network, and access online expertise.[12] However, less common among these apps were prompts to act and opportunities for problem solving and action planning, which are crucial constructs that translate intention into long-term behavior change.[13]

Sensor technologies
Sensor technologies have begun to enter the telehealth landscape and are primarily focused on continuous monitoring and precise diagnostics to inform management of various health conditions and diseases.[14-17] Sensors can be integrated into a watch or arm band or adhesive bandages and clothing, and then programmed to collect data on cardiac rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, oxygen saturation, galvanic skin response, glucose levels, body temperature, body motions, ambient temperature, and global positioning. For health care providers, sensor inputs can permit remote monitoring, real-time teleconferencing, and timely care for patients with chronic diseases. For both patients and clinicians, telehealth supported by sensors can have profound implications. Clinicians can provide timely and patient-centred care to those living at a distance with chronic disease and can coordinate care when multiple providers are involved, reducing costs to the health care system.

A current clinical example is the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a mobile ECG and app that monitors the patient’s electrical rhythm to detect frequency and patterns of arrhythmias, and may even allow patients to share ultrasound and electrocardiogram data with their health care provider.[18-20] Telemonitoring with sensors can also support self-management of chronic diseases and detect early signs of deterioration in health requiring immediate treatment and advice.[21] Studies to date have demonstrated some clinical promise for the use of home telemonitoring in the context of heart failure and diabetes. A recent Cochrane review found that telemonitoring was an effective way to lower levels of glycated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein.[22] Although several studies on heart failure have produced conflicting results regarding the overall benefits of home monitoring,[23-26] systematic reviews have suggested that home telemonitoring reduces all-cause mortality and hospitalizations, and improves quality of life compared with usual care.[22,27] In addition, features such as automated and mobile telemonitoring appear to be more effective compared with other forms of home telemonitoring.[27]

Further studies are needed to determine how home health monitoring can improve patient safety during the transition from acute care to community care, and to examine the impact of home monitoring on health care costs. TEC4Home (Telehealth for Emergency-Community Continuity of Care Connectivity via Home Tele-monitoring), an initiative of the University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health, is seeking to do this with prospective trials designed to uncover how telemonitoring can support the safety of heart failure patients discharged from hospital to home.[28]

Mobile apps, wearables, and sensors in the clinical setting
Even though mobile apps, wearables, and sensor technologies are promising, further research is needed to validate their use and long-term impact.[29] This research will require the collaboration of clinicians, health researchers, engineers, and computer scientists.[30] Understanding the possible risks of using these technologies, from physiological harm to breaching of privacy and confidentiality with insecure devices, and how to mitigate any risks is also important. Other important issues to consider include patient anxiety with overuse of technologies, health data piracy, self-diagnosis resulting from overreliance on self-monitoring, and patients not seeking help appropriately. These technologies should be used only as complementary tools in the treatment and prevention of health conditions and disease and should not be used in isolation by patients who self-diagnose and self-manage without consulting a health professional. 

Taylor Swift and Katy Perry opted for bedazzled5 dresses in very different styles. Taylor went for a more old Hollywood, glamorous Grecian style that exposed her back and statuesque6 figure, while Katy rocked a shorter, spunkier look that exposed a little of everything.

Instant Heart Rate by Azumio.[31] A free app downloadable to both Apple and Android operating systems that measures heart rate and displays a monitoring strip. As well as helping users accurately track their heart rates, the app is capable of detecting irregular rhythms when palpitations occur. 

Sleep Time by Azumio.[32] A free app that monitors sleep patterns, sleep efficiency, and also acts as an alarm clock. Users can know how often they go into light and deep sleep, and recognize how much of these types of sleep will be necessary for them to feel rested, thereby quantifying the amount of true sleep they need and not just how long they should stay in bed. 

Bellybio Interactive Breating by RelaxLine.[33] A free app that helps users pace their breathing to achieve calmness. Placing the mobile phone against the abdomen, users can follow the sounds emitted to practise deep, abdominal breathing using this simple yet surprisingly effective tool. 

《大唐荣耀》
这个排行榜是依据两项调查收集的数据编制的:一项调查针对参与排名的商学院,另一项针对这些商学院在3年前毕业的校友(即2013届学员)。

Here is my best guess - and that's all it is - for how the U.S. economy and markets will look in 2010:
Actor in a Mini-Series or Movie: Courtney B. Vance, “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story”
adj. 谦虚的,适度的,端庄的
6、Social media addiction
The two extraordinary sex toys will go on display at an upcoming exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in the United States.
豆瓣网友“Amy”称:“他们是神仙。除了谈情说爱,就不能干点别的吗?”

Discernment to determine whether a particular app, wearable, or sensor can be effective.
Expertise and experience to guide patients on the use of technology.
Partnership with patients in pursuit of optimal health through technology use.
Trials to closely monitor benefits and drawbacks.
Humility to recognize that patients may know and invest much more time than physicians in looking for these tools.34

Conclusions
Based on today’s rapid pace of development and public enthusiasm for the technology marketplace, health apps, wearables, and sensors will soon become integral to our patients’ pursuits of good health and will need to be integrated in clinical practice. Physicians must be active agents in these evolutionary times, guiding patients, advocating for evidence to support the use of technologies, and participating in the development and incorporation of technology in patient wellness journeys. Through clinical stewardship and partnership with patients, physicians can use their expertise and experience to guide the growth of innovations into mainstream health care.

Competing interests
Dr Ho receives no personal financial compensation as the principal investigator of TEC4Home (Telehealth for Emergency-Community Continuity of Care Connectivity via Home Tele-monitoring), a project funded by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research grant. This grant is matched by the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research and the BC Ministry of Health, with additional support provided by TELUS Health and Sentrian. TELUS Health, Cisco, and Avizia have also provided equipment for display in Dr Ho’s Demonstration and Simulation Studio for Health (DaSSH) at UBC. Mr Yao and Dr Lauscher have no competing interests to declare.


国内陶瓷色釉料产销受阻 企业各出奇招应对市场


References

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2. Swan M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: An examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009;6:492-525.

3. Gao Y, Li H, Luo Y. An empirical study of wearable technology acceptance in healthcare. Ind Manag Data Syst 2010;115:1704-1723.

4. Kim KJ, Shin DH. An acceptance model for smart watches: Implications for the adoption of future wearable technology. Internet Res 2015;25:527-541.

5. West JH, Hall PC, Hanson CL, et al. There’s an app for that: Content analysis of paid health and fitness apps. J Med Internet Res 2012;14:e72.

6. Abroms LC, Padmanabhan N, Thaweethai L, Phillips T. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: A content analysis. Am J Prev Med 2011;40:279-285.

7. Cowan LT, Van Wagenen SA, Brown BA, et al. Apps of steel: Are exercise apps providing consumers with realistic expectations? A content analysis of exercise apps for presence of behavior change theory. Health Educ Behav 2013;40:133-139.

8. Azar KM, Lesser LI, Laing BY, et al. Mobile applications for weight management. Am J Prev Med 2013;45:583-589.

9. Breland JY, Yeh VM, Yu J. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines among diabetes self-management apps. Transl Behav Med 2013;3:277-286.

10. Lyons EJ, Lewis ZH, Mayrsohn BG, Rowland JL. Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: A systematic content analysis. J Med Internet Res 2014;16:e192.

11. Lewis ZH, Lyons EJ, Jarvis JM, Baillargeon J. Using an electronic activity monitor system as an intervention modality: A systematic review. BMC Public Health 2015;15:585.

12. Bort-Roig J, Gilson ND, Puig-Ribera A, et al. Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: A systematic review. Sports Med 2014;44:671-686.

13. Rhodes RE, Yao CA. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: A user’s guide, content overview, and review of current evidence. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2015;12:1-14.

14. Chen M, Gonzalez S, Vasilakos A, et al. Body area networks: A survey. Mob Networks Appl 2011;16:171-193.

15. Appelboom G, Camacho E, Abraham ME, et al. Smart wearable body sensors for patient self-assessment and monitoring. Arch Public Health 2014;72:28.

16. Chan M, Estève D, Fourniols JY, et al. Smart wearable systems: Current status and future challenges. Artif Intell Med 2012;56:137-156.

17. Alemdar H, Ersoy C. Wireless sensor networks for healthcare: A survey. Comput Networks 2010;54:2688-2710.

18. Haberman ZC, Jahn RT, Bose R, et al. Wireless smartphone ECG enables large-scale screening in diverse populations. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2015;26:520-526.

19. Ferdman DJ, Liberman L, Silver ES. A smartphone application to diagnose the mechanism of pediatric supraventricular tachycardia. Pediatr Cardiol 2015;36:1452-1457.

20. Baquero GA, Banchs JE, Ahmed S, et al. Surface 12 lead electrocardiogram recordings using smart phone technology. J Electrocardiol 2015;48:1-7.

21. Wootton R. Twenty years of telemedicine in chronic disease management—An evidence synthesis. J Telemed Telecare 2012;18:211-220.

22. Flodgren G, Rachas A, Farmer A, et al. Interactive telemedicine: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database System Rev 2015;(9):CD002098.

23. Mortara A, Pinna GD, Johnson P, et al. Home telemonitoring in heart failure patients: The HHH study (Home or Hospital in Heart Failure). Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:312-318.

24. Dar O, Riley J, Chapman C, et al. A randomized trial of home telemonitoring in a typical elderly heart failure population in North West London: Results of the Home-HF study. Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:319-325.

25. Chaudhry SI, Mattera JA, Curtis JP, et al. Telemonitoring in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2301-2309.

26. Koehler F, Winkler S, Schieber M, et al. Impact of remote telemedical management on mortality and hospitalizations in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure: The Telemedical Interventional Monitoring in Heart Failure study. Circulation 2011;123:1873-1880.

27. Kitsiou S, Pare G, Jaana M. Effects of home telemonitoring interventions on patients with chronic heart failure: An overview of systematic reviews. J Med Internet Res 2015;17:e63.

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29. Yao C, Ho K. Mobile sensors and wearable technologies. In: Amelung VE, Stein V, Goodwin N, et al., editors. Handbook integrated care. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2017.

30. Ho K, Borycki E, Kushniruk A, et al. The health perspective in using digital media for health and wellness. Presented at the IEEE International Digital Media Industry Forum, Boston, MA, 4-6 July 2016.

31. Azumio Inc. Instant heart rate. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.azumio.com/s/instantheartrate/index.html. 

32. Azumio Inc. Sleep time. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.azumio.com/s/sleeptime/index.html. 

33. RelaxLine. BellyBio. Accessed 28 August 2017. https://itunes.apple.com/ca/app/bellybio-interactive-breathing/id353763955?mt=8.

34. Ho K. How health information technologies are enhancing health of patients and their doctors. Presentation at the Alberta Medical Association 2015 Spring Representatives Forum, Edmonton, AB, 13 March 2015.


The programme focuses on the early careers of the children that are enrolled in the Abby Lee Dance Company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
自迈克尔?哈内克之后,再没有人像希腊导演欧格斯?兰斯莫斯那样喜欢在电影作品中解剖社会习俗了。两年前,他的电影《龙虾》用其看待社会的辛辣视角完全征服了戛纳电影节。在《龙虾》描述的社会中,如果成年人无法在45天内寻找到一个爱侣,就会变成动物——这也是我们的世界,只是将集体思维和从众性推向了最大的极限。如今他又带着新作《圣鹿之死》回归,这是关于一个外科医生(科林?法瑞尔饰)和他的妻子(妮可?基德曼饰)的家庭惊悚电影。这位妻子也是一个医生,她像朋友一样对待没有父亲的少年马丁。马丁似乎决心暴露这个家庭的秘密,并揭开这对夫妻过去的一段可怕的创伤。这部电影想表达的难道是家庭(也有可能是社会)的平静有时候依赖于共享商定的谎言?不管是不是,准备好接受惊吓吧。该片将于11月9日在丹麦上映,11月16日在俄罗斯上映,11月30在中国香港上映。(A24制片公司)
The UK’s Warwick Business School recorded the best progression at the top, moving up from 16th to ninth place, while the Shanghai Advanced Institute of Finance (Saif), based at JiaoTong University, enjoys the bestprogression overall, jumping from 28th to 14th place.
达洛伊西奥常喜欢说“时间是新的货币”。这是一个17岁男孩对人生的睿智洞察,也是Summly软件背后的发展理念。而我们多数人在他那个年龄,时间多得都不知道该怎么做才不会荒废。我很容易就忘了这样一个事实:达洛伊西奥在1995年出生于一个中上层阶级家庭,连高中都还没毕业,还住在小时候住的那个舒服卧室里。在我和他父母聊天的时候,他离开房间去在电脑上干活。只见他穿着袜子下楼,牛仔裤腿扫过大厅的地毯──此时此刻是他最像个孩子的时候。
如果一部情景喜剧播出10年堪称流行,那么播出20年后依旧令无数人挂怀的电视剧则是经典。《老友记》1994年在美国首播,讲述了六个生活在纽约的青年男女的故事。现在,该剧已经是最著名的情景喜剧之一,在全球超过100多个国家和地区播出。
The winter holiday season will help thin the herd, but the true litmus test will be when a company can introduce a wearable that passes the “turnaround test,” Gilbert says—when a person walks a few steps from their front door and decides to turn around to retrieve a forgotten wearable device like they would a forgotten wallet, keys, or phone.
n. 土耳其
"I'm not really worried about it, honestly," Bryant said. "My shooting will be better."
伦敦——在20世纪70年代,英国喜剧演员汤米·库珀(Tommy Cooper)讲过这样一个笑话:他在阁楼里发现一把小提琴和一幅画,让拍卖公司估价。拍卖公司说,好消息是它们分别出自斯特拉迪瓦里(Stradivarius)和伦勃朗(Rembrandt)之手。坏消息是那幅画是斯特拉迪瓦里画的,小提琴是伦勃朗做的。
麦高恩出生于多配偶制的邪教家庭,少年时离家出走。

Kendall Ho, MD, FRCPC, Christopher Yao, MSc, Helen Novak Lauscher, PhD. Part 2: Health apps, wearables, and sensors: The advancing frontier of digital health. BCMJ, Vol. 59, No. 10, December, 2017, Page(s) 503-506 - Clinical Articles.



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Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

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美国全国地产经纪商协会(National Association of Realtors)的数据显示,自去年7月份以来美国成屋销量每月都在下滑。这和美国借贷成本上升是同步的。由于美联储暗示将缩减购债计划的规模,整个经济的借贷成本不断上升。
其中有铁环的那一个是在江苏西部的仪征市发现的。
v. 擦亮,磨
The Warriors are one of the best teams in NBA history, and you can put their championship run up against any team in NBA history for the best playoff performance ever. But there's also a legitimate question of what this means for the sport. If the best or second-best player of all time stands no chance against this team, what does it mean for the sport's competitiveness? It hasn't been a problem so far, thanks to an extremely wild offseason, but the question remains: what happens to a competitive sports league when it's not truly competitive at the highest level?

Those born after 1995 tend to make more varied choices and are likely to combine work with their hobbies.

  • Only the first three authors are listed, followed by "et al."
  • 住总建材城因违建被拆除
  • 北京存量房屋买卖合同公开征意见


一位伦敦软件神童的“硅谷梦”成真,雅虎(Yahoo)斥资近3000万美元收购了他制作的新闻应用。
Yu Xiuhua

BCMJ Guidelines for Authors

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